Coastal ecology and palaeoecology of the Baltic and adjacent seas
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Molten team (2004) MOLTEN management tool .
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Molten Team (2004) MOLTEN transfer function user guide .
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Molten Team (2004) MOLTEN transfer function software .
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Clarke, A.L., Juggins, S., and Conley, D.J. (2003) A 150-year reconstruction of the history of coastal eutrophication in Roskilde Fjord, Denmark. Marine Pollution Bulletin 46: 1615-1618.

Reuss, N., Conley, D.J. & Bianchi, T.S. (2005) Preservation conditions and the use of sediment pigments as a tool for recent ecological reconstruction in four Northern European estuaries Marine Chemistry 95: 283-302.

Down-core sediment pigment concentrations from four Northern European estuaries were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to investigate phytoplankton community structure and preservation conditions over the last ca. 100 years where all sites have experienced different levels of eutrophication. Phytoplankton pigments have been shown to be useful biomarkers for phytoplankton community structure and abundance due to their taxonomic specificity. The pigment concentrations and sediment pigment inventory showed large variation between the four sites. Concentrations ranged from more than 6000 nmol/g OC to less than 100 nmol/g OC and the inventory integrated over the top 10 cm from more than 300 nmol/cm2 to less than 30 nmol/cm2 for total identified pigments. Good pigment preservation in Mariager Fjord (Denmark) reflected the almost permanently anoxic conditions. Pigments in Laajalahti (Finland) showed peak concentrations around the time of highest nitrogen loading events known from historical and modelled records over the past 100 years. In contrast, poor down-core preservation of pigments (especially carotenoids) was observed in the Ems-Dollard (The Netherlands) and Himmerfjärden (Sweden) estuaries. The Ems-Dollard site is an intertidal mudflat that experiences daily exposure to light and air, which enhances pigment degradation. In Himmerfjärden, resuspension is an important process affecting both the sedimentation rate and degradation properties. The different preservation conditions at the four sites were supported by the differences in two degradation indicators; the ratio of pheopigment-a to chlorophyll-a and total carotenoids to total pigments. Class-specific carotenoid pigments represented the dominant algal groups reported from each site, however, no distinct down-core changes in the pigment composition were observed at any of the four sites. This indicated that changes in plankton community structure on the group level have been limited over this time period or masked by low preservation of pigments.

Clarke, A. L., Weckström, K, Conley, D. J., Anderson, N. J., Adser, F., Andrén, E., de Jonge, V. N., Ellegaard, M., Juggins, S., Kauppila, P., Korhola, A., Reuss, N., Telford, R. J., Vaalgamaa, S. (2005) Long-term trends in eutrophication and nutrients in the coastal zone. In press, Limnol. Oceanogr..

Weckström, K (Submitted) Assessing recent eutrophication in coastal waters of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) using subfossil diatoms. Journal of Paleolimnology..

Weckström, K., Juggins, S. & Korhola, A. (2004) Quantifying background nutrient concentrations in coastal waters: A case study from an urban embayment of the Baltic Sea. Ambio 33(6): 324-327..

Weckström, K. & Juggins, S. (In Press) Coastal diatom-environment relationships from the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea. Journal of Phycology..

Kauppila, P., Weckström, K., Vaalgamaa, S., Pitkänen, H., Korhola, A., Reuss, N. & Drew, S. (2005) Tracing pollution and recovery using sediments in an urban estuary, the northern Baltic Sea: Are we far from ecological reference conditions? Marine Ecology Progress Series 290: 35-53..

Weckström, K., Korhola, A. & Shemeikka, P. (2002) Physical and chemical characteristics of shallow embayments on the southern coast of Finland. Hydrobiologia 477: 115-127.
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Andrén, E. (2005) Naturliga halter - vad är det? Historiska arkiv ger referensvärden. Miljötillståndet i Egentliga Östersjön Rapport 2005. tockholm Marine Research Centre, available on

Andrén, E. (2005) Oral presentation broadcasted from the Swedish digital TV channel "Kunskapskanalen" 16 Mars 2005. Available from the web.

Clarke, A.L., Weckström, K. & Andrén, E. (2002) Diatom-based transfer functions as a tool to study coastal eutrophication: the MOLTEN project. 17th International Diatom Symposium Ottawa, Canada 25-31 August, 2002.

Clarke, A.L. & Juggins, S. (2001) A diatom-based transfer function to infer historical changes in total nitrogen from coastal sediments. Invited oral presentation at ERF 2001: An Estuarine Odyssey 16th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Federation St. Pete Beach, Florida, U.S.A. 4-8 November 2001.

Ellegaard, M. (2002) Dinoflagellate cysts as potential indicators of nutrient levels in the past. 10th International conference on harmful algae blooms St. Pete Beach, Florida. 20-25 October 2002.
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Andrén, E., Clarke, A. & Weckström, K. (2004) Defining reference conditions for coastal areas in the Baltic Sea for the Water Framework Directive. Ten-year Jubilee Conference of the Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, Sweden, 23-25 September 2004..

Clarke, A. (2004) Oral Oral presentation at the 18th International Diatom Symposium, Polen, 2-7 September 2004..

Clarke, A. (2005) Oral Oral presentation at the ASLO Aquatic Science Meeting, USA, 20-25 February 2005..

Conley, D. (2005) Oral Oral presentation at the HELCOM EUTRO meeting, January 2005..

Korhola, A. (2005) Oral Oral presentation at BIREME Annual Symposium, Finland, 9-11 February 2005..

Vilbaste, S., Andrén, E., Clarke, A., Telford, R. & Weckström, K. (2005) DEFINE - continuation of EU MOLTEN project. Preliminary results - diatoms from Estonian coastal waters. Nordic Diatomist Meeting, Estonia, 20-23 May 2005..

Weckström, K. & Juggins, S. (2005) Coastal diatom-environmental relationships from the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea. Poster presentation at the ASLO summer meeting, Spain, 19-24 June 2005..

Vaalgamaa, S. (2002) The eutrophication history of Laajalahti Bay, Helsinki City, as reflected by sediment geochemistry. ASLO 2002 Summer Meeting Inter-disciplinary Linkages in Aquatic Sciences and Beyond, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

Weckström, K., Vaalgamaa, S., Kangas, J. & Shemeikka, P. (2004) Hellänlahden rehevöitymishstoria paleolimologisin menetelmin arvioituna. [The eutrophication history of Hellänlahti - an assessment using palaeolimnological methods] Raportti Kaakkois-Suomen ympäristökeskukselle. 15 s. [Scientific Report to the Southeast Finland Regional Environment Centre. 15 p.].

Weckström, K., Vaalgamaa, S., Kangas, J. & Shemeikka, P. (2004) Uudenmaan merenlahtien rehevöitymishistoria paleolimnologisin menetelmin arvioituna: Pieni Pernajanlahti, Fasarbyviken, Varlaxviken, Nikuviken, "Insjön" ja Sipoonlahti. [The eutrophication history of coastal embayments in Uusimaa - an assessment using palaeolimnological methods: Pieni Pernajanlahti, Fasarbyviken, Varlaxviken, Nikuviken, "Insjön" and Sipoonlahti.] Raportti Uudenmaan ympäristökeskukselle sekä Porvoon, Pernajan ja Sipoon kunnille. 24 s. [Scientific Report to the Uusimaa Regional Environment Centre and the cities of Porvoo, Pernaja and Sipoo. 24 p.].

Clarke, A.L. (2001) A diatom-based transfer function to infer historical changes in total nitrogen concentration from coastal sediments: a case study from Roskilde Fjord, Denmark. PhD Thesis, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.